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An updated counseling framework for moderate-penetrance colorectal cancer susceptibility genes

Published:October 12, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gim.2022.08.027

      ABSTRACT

      Purpose

      With the recent guideline change for individuals at average risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) to initiate colonoscopy at the age of 45 years, there is a need to provide an updated counseling framework for individuals with variants in moderate-penetrance CRC susceptibility genes.

      Methods

      Population age-specific incidence rates for CRC were obtained from the 2014-2018 US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program cancer statistics. Average-risk multipliers derived from a systematic meta-analysis were used to calculate the 5-year and cumulative lifetime risks for specific genetic variants associated with a moderate risk for CRC: NM_007194.4(CHEK2):c.1100del (p.Thr367fs), NM_007194.4(CHEK2):c.470T>C (p.Ile157Thr), NM_000038.6(APC):c.3920T>A (p.Ile1307Lys) and monoallelic MUTYH.

      Results

      When an individual at average risk would initiate colonoscopy at age 45 years, a CRC risk of 0.39% is reached. For CHEK2 1100delC, CHEK2 I157T, and APC I1307K heterozygotes, this same level of risk is reached (or nearly reached) by age 40 to 45 years. For individuals with a monoallelic MUTYH variant, the CRC risk is 0.46% by age 45 to 49 years, similar to individuals at average risk.

      Conclusion

      These updated calculations support recommendations to initiate earlier colonoscopy surveillance for CHEK2 and APC I1307K germline variant heterozygotes. However, earlier surveillance is not indicated for individuals with monoallelic MUTYH germline variants in the absence of family history.

      Keywords

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