ACMG Statements and Guidelines
These online statements and guidelines are definitive and may be cited using the digital object identifier (DOI). These recommendations are designed primarily as an educational resource for medical geneticists and other healthcare providers to help them provide quality medical genetics services; they should not be considered inclusive of all proper procedures and tests or exclusive of other procedures and tests that are reasonably directed to obtaining the same results. Please refer to the leading disclaimer in each document for more information.
- To develop an evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the use of exome and genome sequencing (ES/GS) in the care of pediatric patients with one or more congenital anomalies (CA) with onset prior to age 1 year or developmental delay (DD) or intellectual disability (ID) with onset prior to age 18 years.
- Reductions in the cost of genomic analyses and the elimination of gene patents for clinical diagnostics have enabled clinical laboratories to provide increasingly comprehensive genetic testing using sequencing, microarrays, and other methods, resulting in the generation of a vast amount of data that then needs to be analyzed.1 A significant challenge for clinical laboratory geneticists is the provision of accurate and consistent variant classification. Variant classification has historically been hindered by a lagging recognition of gene–disease associations, as well as a lack of publicly available data (including reference data) from clinical laboratories and other sources.
- Disclaimer: ACMG Clinical Laboratory Practice Resources are developed primarily as an educational tool for clinical laboratory geneticists to help them provide quality clinical laboratory genetic services. Adherence to these practice resources is voluntary and does not necessarily assure a successful medical outcome. This Clinical Laboratory Practice Resource should not be considered inclusive of all proper procedures and tests or exclusive of other procedures and tests that are reasonably directed to obtaining the same results.
- Microarray methodologies, including array comparative genomic hybridization and single-nucleotide polymorphism–detecting arrays, are accepted as an appropriate first-tier test for the evaluation of imbalances associated with intellectual disability, autism, and multiple congenital anomalies. This technology also has applicability in prenatal specimens. To assist clinical laboratories in validation of microarray methodologies for constitutional applications, the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics has produced the following revised professional standards and guidelines.
- Genomic testing, including single-nucleotide polymorphism–based microarrays and whole-genome sequencing, can detect long stretches of the genome that display homozygosity. The presence of these segments, when distributed across multiple chromosomes, can indicate a familial relationship between the proband’s parents. This article describes the detection of possible consanguinity by genomic testing and the factors confounding the inference of a specific parental relationship. It is designed to guide the documentation of suspected consanguinity by clinical laboratory professionals and to alert laboratories to the need to establish a reporting policy in conjunction with their ethics review committee and legal counsel.
- Genomic microarrays used to assess DNA copy number are now recommended as first-tier tests for the postnatal evaluation of individuals with intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders, and/or multiple congenital anomalies. Application of this technology has resulted in the discovery of widespread copy number variation in the human genome, both polymorphic variation in healthy individuals and novel pathogenic copy number imbalances. To assist clinical laboratories in the evaluation of copy number variants and to promote consistency in interpretation and reporting of genomic microarray results, the American College of Medical Genetics has developed the following professional guidelines for the interpretation and reporting of copy number variation.
- This updated Section E9 has been incorporated into and supersedes the previous Section E9 in Section E: Clinical Cytogenetics of the 2008 Edition (Revised 02/2007) American College of Medical Genetics Standards and Guidelines for Clinical Genetics Laboratories. This section deals specifically with the standards and guidelines applicable to fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis.
- Genomic copy number microarrays have significantly increased the diagnostic yield over a karyotype for clinically significant imbalances in individuals with developmental delay, intellectual disability, multiple congenital anomalies, and autism, and they are now accepted as a first tier diagnostic test for these indications. As it is not feasible to validate microarray technology that targets the entire genome in the same manner as an assay that targets a specific gene or syndromic region, a new paradigm of validation and regulation is needed to regulate this important diagnostic technology.