ACMG Statements and Guidelines
These online statements and guidelines are definitive and may be cited using the digital object identifier (DOI). These recommendations are designed primarily as an educational resource for medical geneticists and other healthcare providers to help them provide quality medical genetics services; they should not be considered inclusive of all proper procedures and tests or exclusive of other procedures and tests that are reasonably directed to obtaining the same results. Please refer to the leading disclaimer in each document for more information.
Stewardship of patient genomic data: A policy statement of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG)Human genomic data linked to health records have become valuable in the quest to establish correlations between disease and genetic information. As a result, it has become increasingly common for patient genetic information obtained through clinical testing or other means to be de-identified and linked to health records for sale or transfer to a third party for research and development purposes (eg, novel drug targets, patient and provider tools for managing health care). Unlike many other elements within the de-identified data set, however, the patient’s genetic information in various forms (eg, DNA sequence, RNA sequence, aggregated variant data, optical mapping) may be sufficiently information-rich to permit reidentification of the patient using informatics tools in some cases and is considered by some to be inherently identifiable.
CFTR variant testing: a technical standard of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG)Pathogenic variants in the CFTR gene are causative of classic cystic fibrosis (CF) as well as some nonclassic CF phenotypes. In 2001, CF became the first target of pan-ethnic universal carrier screening by molecular methods. The American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) recommended a core panel of 23 disease-causing variants as the minimal set to be included in pan-ethnic carrier screening of individuals with no family history of the disease, and these variants were usually assessed using targeted methods.
Standards and guidelines for the interpretation of sequence variants: a joint consensus recommendation of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular PathologyDisclaimer: These ACMG Standards and Guidelines were developed primarily as an educational resource for clinical laboratory geneticists to help them provide quality clinical laboratory services. Adherence to these standards and guidelines is voluntary and does not necessarily assure a successful medical outcome. These Standards and Guidelines should not be considered inclusive of all proper procedures and tests or exclusive of other procedures and tests that are reasonably directed to obtaining the same results.
ACMG recommendations for reporting of incidental findings in clinical exome and genome sequencingIn clinical exome and genome sequencing, there is a potential for the recognition and reporting of incidental or secondary findings unrelated to the indication for ordering the sequencing but of medical value for patient care. The American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) recently published a policy statement on clinical sequencing that emphasized the importance of alerting the patient to the possibility of such results in pretest patient discussions, clinical testing, and reporting of results.
ACMG position statement on prenatal/preconception expanded carrier screeningFor years, clinicians have offered gene-by-gene carrier screening to patients and couples considering future pregnancy or those with an ongoing pregnancy early in gestation. Examples include ethnic-specific screening offered to Ashkenazi Jewish patients and panethnic screening for cystic fibrosis and spinal muscular atrophy. Next-generation sequencing methods now available permit screening for many more disorders with high fidelity, quick turnaround time, and lower costs. However, instituting these technologies carries with it perils that must be addressed.
ACMG recommendations for standards for interpretation and reporting of sequence variations: Revisions 2007ACMG previously developed recommendations for standards for interpretation of sequence variations. We now present the updated revised recommendations. Here, we describe six interpretative categories of sequence variations: (1) sequence variation is previously reported and is a recognized cause of the disorder; (2) sequence variation is previously unreported and is of the type which is expected to cause the disorder; (3) sequence variation is previously unreported and is of the type which may or may not be causative of the disorder; (4) sequence variation is previously unreported and is probably not causative of disease; (5) sequence variation is previously reported and is a recognized neutral variant; and (6) sequence variation is previously not known or expected to be causative of disease, but is found to be associated with a clinical presentation.
Technical standards and guidelines: Venous thromboembolism (Factor V Leiden and prothrombin 20210G>A testing): A disease-specific supplement to the standards and guidelines for clinical genetics laboratoriesDisclaimer: These standards and guidelines are designed primarily as an educational resource for clinical laboratory geneticists to help them provide quality clinical laboratory genetic services. Adherence to this statement does not necessarily ensure a successful medical outcome. These standards and guidelines should not be considered inclusive of all proper procedures and tests or exclusive of other procedures and tests that are reasonably directed to obtaining the same results. In determining the propriety of any specific procedure or test, the clinical molecular geneticist should apply his or her own professional judgment to the specific clinical circumstances presented by the individual patient or specimen.
Cystic fibrosis population carrier screening: 2004 revision of American College of Medical Genetics mutation panelAn erratum to this article is available online at https://doi.org/10.1038/gim200480 .
Standards and Guidelines for CFTR Mutation TestingOne mission of the ACMG Laboratory Quality Assurance (QA) Committee is to develop standards and guidelines for clinical genetics laboratories, including cytogenetics, biochemical, and molecular genetics specialties. This document was developed under the auspices of the Molecular Subcommittee of the Laboratory QA Committee by the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Working Group. It was placed on the “fast track” to address the preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical quality assurance practices of laboratories currently providing testing for CF.
American College of Medical Genetics Consensus Statement on Factor V Leiden Mutation TestingWhen appropriate clinical care requires testing for the factor V Leiden allele, either direct DNA-based genotyping or a factor V Leiden-specific functional assay is recommended. Patients who test positive by a functional assay should then be further studied with the DNA test for confirmation and to distinguish heterozygotes from homozygotes. Patients on heparin therapy or with known lupus anticoagulant should proceed directly to molecular testing if the modified functional assay is not used. When relatives of individuals known to have factor V Leiden are tested, the DNA method is recommended.
Laboratory standards and guidelines for population-based cystic fibrosis carrier screeningIn 1997, the National Institutes of Health convened a Consensus Development Conference on Cystic Fibrosis (CF).1 The Consensus Conference recommended that genetic screening for CF mutations should be offered to identify carriers among adults with a positive family history of CF, partners of individuals with CF, couples currently planning a pregnancy, and couples seeking prenatal care. A second NIH-sponsored conference that focused on the implementation of the Consensus Conference recommendations was held in 1998.