ACMG Statements and Guidelines
These online statements and guidelines are definitive and may be cited using the digital object identifier (DOI). These recommendations are designed primarily as an educational resource for medical geneticists and other healthcare providers to help them provide quality medical genetics services; they should not be considered inclusive of all proper procedures and tests or exclusive of other procedures and tests that are reasonably directed to obtaining the same results. Please refer to the leading disclaimer in each document for more information.
- The American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) previously published guidance for reporting secondary findings (SF) in the context of clinical exome and genome sequencing in 2013, 2017, and 2021.1-3 The ACMG Secondary Findings Working Group (SFWG) and Board of Directors (BOD) have agreed that the list of recommended genes should now be updated annually, but with an ongoing goal of maintaining this as a minimum list. Reporting of SF should be considered neither a replacement for indication-based diagnostic clinical genetic testing nor a form of population screening.
- A correction to this article is available online at https://doi.org/10.1038/s41436-021-01278-8 .
- Reductions in the cost of genomic analyses and the elimination of gene patents for clinical diagnostics have enabled clinical laboratories to provide increasingly comprehensive genetic testing using sequencing, microarrays, and other methods, resulting in the generation of a vast amount of data that then needs to be analyzed.1 A significant challenge for clinical laboratory geneticists is the provision of accurate and consistent variant classification. Variant classification has historically been hindered by a lagging recognition of gene–disease associations, as well as a lack of publicly available data (including reference data) from clinical laboratories and other sources.
- Glycogen storage disease (GSD) types VI and IX are rare diseases of variable clinical severity affecting primarily the liver. GSD VI is caused by deficient activity of hepatic glycogen phosphorylase, an enzyme encoded by the PYGL gene. GSD IX is caused by deficient activity of phosphorylase kinase (PhK), the enzyme subunits of which are encoded by various genes: ɑ (PHKA1, PHKA2), β (PHKB), ɣ (PHKG1, PHKG2), and δ (CALM1, CALM2, CALM3). Glycogen storage disease types VI and IX have a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and often cannot be distinguished from each other, or from other liver GSDs, on clinical presentation alone.
- Disclaimer: These recommendations are designed primarily as an educational resource for medical geneticists and other healthcare providers to help them provide quality medical services. Adherence to these recommendations is completely voluntary and does not necessarily assure a successful medical outcome. These recommendations should not be considered inclusive of all proper procedures and tests or exclusive of other procedures and tests that are reasonably directed toward obtaining the same results.
- This guideline is designed primarily as an educational resource for clinicians to help them provide quality medical services. Adherence to this guideline is completely voluntary and does not necessarily ensure a successful medical outcome. This guideline should not be considered inclusive of all proper procedures and tests or exclusive of other procedures and tests that are reasonably directed toward obtaining the same results. In determining the propriety of any specific procedure or test, the clinician should apply his or her own professional judgment to the specific clinical circumstances presented by the individual patient or specimen.
- Glycogen storage disease type III is a rare disease of variable clinical severity affecting primarily the liver, heart, and skeletal muscle. It is caused by deficient activity of glycogen debranching enzyme, which is a key enzyme in glycogen degradation. Glycogen storage disease type III manifests a wide clinical spectrum. Individuals with glycogen storage disease type III present with hepatomegaly, hypoglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and growth retardation. Those with type IIIa have symptoms related to liver disease and progressive muscle (cardiac and skeletal) involvement that varies in age of onset, rate of disease progression, and severity.