ACMG Statements and Guidelines
These online statements and guidelines are definitive and may be cited using the digital object identifier (DOI). These recommendations are designed primarily as an educational resource for medical geneticists and other healthcare providers to help them provide quality medical genetics services; they should not be considered inclusive of all proper procedures and tests or exclusive of other procedures and tests that are reasonably directed to obtaining the same results. Please refer to the leading disclaimer in each document for more information.
- Chromosomal microarray technologies, including array comparative genomic hybridization and single-nucleotide polymorphism array, are widely applied in the diagnostic evaluation for both constitutional and neoplastic disorders. In a constitutional setting, this technology is accepted as the first-tier test for the evaluation of chromosomal imbalances associated with intellectual disability, autism, and/or multiple congenital anomalies. Furthermore, chromosomal microarray analysis is recommended for patients undergoing invasive prenatal diagnosis with one or more major fetal structural abnormalities identified by ultrasonographic examination, and in the evaluation of intrauterine fetal demise or stillbirth when further cytogenetic analysis is desired.
Technical laboratory standards for interpretation and reporting of acquired copy-number abnormalities and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity in neoplastic disorders: a joint consensus recommendation from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) and the Cancer Genomics Consortium (CGC)The detection of acquired copy-number abnormalities (CNAs) and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (CN-LOH) in neoplastic disorders by chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) has significantly increased over the past few years with respect to both the number of laboratories utilizing this technology and the broader number of tumor types being assayed. This highlights the importance of standardizing the interpretation and reporting of acquired variants among laboratories. To address this need, a clinical laboratory-focused workgroup was established to draft recommendations for the interpretation and reporting of acquired CNAs and CN-LOH in neoplastic disorders.
- Microarray methodologies, to include array comparative genomic hybridization and single-nucleotide polymorphism–based arrays, are innovative methods that provide genomic data. These data should be correlated with the results from the standard methods, chromosome and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization, to ascertain and characterize the genomic aberrations of neoplastic disorders, both liquid and solid tumors. Over the past several decades, standard methods have led to an accumulation of genetic information specific to many neoplasms.
- Genomic copy number microarrays have significantly increased the diagnostic yield over a karyotype for clinically significant imbalances in individuals with developmental delay, intellectual disability, multiple congenital anomalies, and autism, and they are now accepted as a first tier diagnostic test for these indications. As it is not feasible to validate microarray technology that targets the entire genome in the same manner as an assay that targets a specific gene or syndromic region, a new paradigm of validation and regulation is needed to regulate this important diagnostic technology.
- Turner syndrome is a disorder that has distinct clinical features and has karyotypic aberrations with loss of critical regions of the X chromosome. Several clinical guidelines on the diagnosis and management of patients with Turner syndrome have been published, but there is relatively little on the laboratory aspects associated with this disorder. This disease-specific laboratory guideline provides laboratory guidance for the diagnosis/study of patients with Turner syndrome and its variants. Because the diagnosis of Turner syndrome involves both a clinical and laboratory component, both sets of guidelines are required for the provision of optimal care for patients with Turner syndrome.
Section E6 of the ACMG technical standards and guidelines: Chromosome studies for acquired abnormalitie: This updated Section E6 has been incorporated into Section E: Clinical Cytogenetics of the 2005 ACMG Standards and Guidelines for Clinical Genetics Laboratories and supersedes the previous section E6Disclaimer: These standards and guidelines are designed primarily as an educational resource for clinical laboratory geneticists to help them provide quality clinical laboratory genetic services. Adherence to these standards and guidelines does not necessarily ensure a successful medical outcome. These standards and guidelines should not be considered inclusive of all proper procedures and tests or exclusive of other procedures and tests that are reasonably directed to obtaining the same results.
- Disclaimer: These standards and guidelines are designed primarily as an educational resource for clinical laboratory geneticists to help them provide quality clinical laboratory genetic services. Adherence to this statement does not necessarily ensure a successful medical outcome. These standards and guidelines should not be considered inclusive of all proper procedures and tests or exclusive of other procedures and tests that are reasonably directed to obtaining the same results. In determining the propriety of any specific procedure or test, the clinical molecular geneticist should apply his or her own professional judgment to the specific clinical circumstances presented by the individual patient or specimen.
- Preface: The Quality Assurance subcommittee of the ACMG Laboratory Practice committee has the mission of maintaining high technical standards for the performance and interpretation of genetic tests. In part, this is accomplished by the publication of the document “Standards and Guidelines for Clinical Genetics Laboratories,” which was published in its second edition in 1999 and is now maintained online (see http://www.faseb.org/genetics/acmg/index.html ). This subcommittee also reviews the outcome of national proficiency testing in the genetics area and may choose to focus on specific diseases or methodologies in response to those results.