ACMG Statements and Guidelines
These online statements and guidelines are definitive and may be cited using the digital object identifier (DOI). These recommendations are designed primarily as an educational resource for medical geneticists and other healthcare providers to help them provide quality medical genetics services; they should not be considered inclusive of all proper procedures and tests or exclusive of other procedures and tests that are reasonably directed to obtaining the same results. Please refer to the leading disclaimer in each document for more information.
- Individuals have a right to access certain information in their medical records as established under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA).1 The specific information to which individuals have access is called a designated record set (DRS), a legal term of art defined in the HIPAA Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information (Privacy Rule).2 The Privacy Rule is a federal medical privacy law that applies to most clinical laboratories operating in the United States.
- Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA; OMIM 251000 , OMIM 251100 , OMIM 251110 , OMIM 277410 , OMIM 277400 ) and propionic acidemia (PA; OMIM 606054 ) are inborn errors of metabolism of the propionate pathway characterized by accumulation of methylmalonic acid and propionic acid, respectively, leading to acute presentations related to metabolic acidosis and hyperammonemia, as well as chronic heterogenous complications.
- Telegenetics, a form of telemedicine, is 2-way, interactive real-time electronic information communication between a patient and genetics health care professional(s) (ie, medical geneticists [physicians who specialize in genetics] and genetic counselors [health care workers with training in medical genetics and counseling]) as an alternate to providing health care in person at a medical office.1,2 These services include, but are not limited to, assessment, diagnosis, consultation, test result release, education, counseling, management of care, and/or aided self-management.
- The American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) previously published guidance for reporting secondary findings (SF) in the context of clinical exome and genome sequencing in 2013, 2017, and 2021.1-3 The ACMG Secondary Findings Working Group (SFWG) and Board of Directors (BOD) have agreed that the list of recommended genes should now be updated annually, but with an ongoing goal of maintaining this as a minimum list. Reporting of SF should be considered neither a replacement for indication-based diagnostic clinical genetic testing nor a form of population screening.
- We thank Righetti et al1 for their interest in our article titled Screening for autosomal recessive and X-linked conditions during pregnancy and preconception: a practice resource of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG).2 We were pleased to learn that the investigators from the Australian Reproductive Genetic Carrier Screening Project (ARGCSP) are in agreement with many aspects of this practice resource.
- Human genomic data linked to health records have become valuable in the quest to establish correlations between disease and genetic information. As a result, it has become increasingly common for patient genetic information obtained through clinical testing or other means to be de-identified and linked to health records for sale or transfer to a third party for research and development purposes (eg, novel drug targets, patient and provider tools for managing health care). Unlike many other elements within the de-identified data set, however, the patient’s genetic information in various forms (eg, DNA sequence, RNA sequence, aggregated variant data, optical mapping) may be sufficiently information-rich to permit reidentification of the patient using informatics tools in some cases and is considered by some to be inherently identifiable.
- In this era of precision medicine, the incorporation of genetic and genomic information, herein referred to as genetic information, into health care has gained unprecedented attention. As a result of the rapid decline in the cost of DNA sequencing, these data are now routinely used for diagnostic purposes and preventive health screening. In addition to the application of genetic information to support diagnosis and management, consumers may directly access various genetic testing–based products for medical and nonmedical uses, and some employers now offer wellness genetic testing to their employees as a benefit.